Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the Cause of COVID-19, is a virus causing the 2020 pandemic outbreak. Disinfection is one of the mayor prevention tools we do have in order to keep the spreading of the disease under control. BBZIX ® joins the fight against the pandemic by contributing its recognized and approved products to end the CORONAVIRUS
- Resume of microbicidal activity of environmental disinfection carried out by BBZIX disinfectants
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the Cause of COVID-19, is a virus causing the 2020 pandemic outbreak. Disinfection is one of the mayor prevention tools we do have in order to keep the spreading of the disease under control.
Disinfection is one of the mayor prevention tools we do have in order to keep the spreading of the disease under control.
BBZIX is a disinfectant manufacturer company based in Spain. The two disinfectants under this analysis are Aquazix Plus® and Zix Virox®
Coronaviruses are not as common in human medicine but are more frequently found in animal production. It is frequently found at poultry production, the Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, which is also a Coronavirus.
Coronaviruses can even cause a certain level of casualties, but they are not very resistant against the microbicidal activity of many disinfectants.
Microbicidal activity against Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has been proved by the collection of bibliography that shows the activity of the active ingredients at BBZIX disinfectants, against this Virus and by its comparison against other Coronaviruses, whose virucide activity seems to be similar.
Active ingredients VIRUCIDE Activity
Hydrogen Peroxide Virucide activity:
SARS: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), was another episode of human coronavirus that caused an outbreak (2003) disease but with a smaller impact of number of people and countries affected.
As COVID-19 is very recent, not many studies have been carried out and have been published in order to be useful for the current outbreak. That’s why the reference for this Virus, would be SARS outbreak 2003.
Regarding this virus (SARS), some studies 1(A. Schmidt, M.H. Wolff and O. Weber, 2005) have shown effective disinfection activity of Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 0.5%.
This study shows that within less than 3 minutes, 4 Log10 can be reduce of this coronavirus (SARS) using a concentration of 5,000 ppm or 0.5% of Hydrogen Peroxide.
Furthermore, in another study 2(Anthony F. Henwood, 2020), it is described the microbicide activity of Hydrogen Peroxide against this virus. The effective virucide activity it is carried out by a concentration of 0.5% of Hydrogen Peroxide, within 1-minute exposure time.
We can find more information regarding the Hydrogen Peroxide Virucide activity at 3(Navid Omidbakhsh, BSc,a and Syed A. Sattar, PhDb, 2005), at this study Hydrogen Peroxide is widely studied against many pathogens and also against to Human coronavirus 229E-also a surrogate for the SARS virus (VR-740).
This study shows that a concentration of 0.5% of Hydrogen Peroxide during 1-minute exposure, is virucide against the Virus. This Virucide activity is quantified as more than 4 Log10 reduction of infectivity. It was carried out under a presence of 5% of serum (mixture of proteins), in order to simulate the presence of body fluids but also the level of stringency of methods for added confidence in the test data.
Peracetic Acid Virucide activity:
Peracetic Acid is a well-known disinfectant, it is known due to its wide spectrum microbicide activity. A very recent study 4(Minjin Wang et al., 2020.) recommends Peracetic Acid, as an effective virucide against 2019-nCov Coronavirus,
As it has been said before, coronaviruses are not especially resistant as many other envelop Viruses. The problem could be found when the virus is under presence of organic material. Some disinfectants are not effective enough under this condition. Peracetic Acid is highly recommended 5(Xin-Wei Wang a et al.), for effective disinfection against Coronavirus in conditions of high levels or organic material as faces or urine.
Cell culture and genome integrity detected by nested RT PCR. Coronavirus SARS-CoV as well as RSV seem to be sensible to the different disinfectants tested in a study, 6(F. ANSALDI et al. 2004). This Study was carried out as follows: A known quantity (1ml) of saline solution containing a standard concentration of cell-grown virus, was mixed with a larger volume (2 ml) of different disinfectants under evaluation at their use dilution. The mixtures were held for a defined contact time (30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 30 min) at controlled temperature (18°C) and humidity (40%). Peracetic Acid disinfectants were used at a dosage of 0.035%. SARS CoV appears to be completely inactivated by disinfectants such as Peracetic Acid, after < 1-minute exposition.
Silver Microbicide Activity:
Silver particles have a long history of been well-known for its microbicide activity. Unlike Hydrogen peroxide and Peracetic acid, studies involving Silver particles, do not talk about effective dosages against viruses, but they do explain that there is a virucide effect, and its synergetic action together with other disinfectants, which is the way we will present it as you will see further in this document, combined with Hydrogen Peroxide.
Having said that, there are many studies, regarding its activity against bacteria, and some against viruses. The use of Silver is highly recommended as there is not cytotoxicity evidence to humans, but also can provide with some residual activity on surfaces.
A study 10(Eric Rentz Do Comm Cnmo (2003)) states that it can be concluded that the smaller the colloidal Silver particle is, the more biologically active it becomes. So colloidal Silver at suspension or diluted in a fluid, has more microbicide activity than other bigger particles of silver.
If indeed the SARS strain of human coronavirus is enveloped, as it is supposed to be, with a minimal fatty wrapper or without a fatty wrapper, which is more likely, then the oligodynamic Ag+ should readily denature its envelope, its capsid, its protein constituents, and its entire genome, as suggested by the work of (Feng et al.)(. Zhang et al.) and as stated at the study previously mentioned, 10(Eric Rentz Do Comm Cnmo (2003)), largest genome of RNA virions, an envelope averaging 80–160nm in diameter, thus making it a large target for oligodynamic Ag+ adsorption when presented in picoscalar colloidal form. In the case of SARS, a picoscalar (8A°) 1 oligodynamic Ag+ formula can impregnate up to 30,000 particles into the outer envelope of a single coronavirus 100nm in diameter.
There is more evidence about how nanoparticle of Silver can bind Virus. One study 11(Stefania Galdiero 2,3,4 et al., 2011) shows, Silver nanoparticles within the range of 1–10 nm were able to bind to the virus (HIV), the evidence is clear when it was found that nanoparticles were not randomly attached to the virus but it was found established regular spatial relationships with the viral envelope.
This study explains that there is proved virucide activity against HIV-1 [37–40], hepatitis B virus , respiratory syncytial virus , herpes simplex virus type 1 [43,44], monkeypox virus , influenza virus  and Tacaribe virus .
HIV can be related to coronavirus as it also is enveloped and it has capsid.
And a very interesting finding is that Silver together with other disinfectants have shown that there is an interesting synergetic microbicide activity: This activity has been proven by some studies for Hydrogen Peroxide (Armon et al. 2000; Rafter et al. 1999). It seems that metal binds to a biological molecule and is reduced by superoxide radicals or other reductants and then reoxidized by Hydrogen Peroxide. Continuous redox reactions in a cyclic manner result in damage, as radical formation occurs near the target site of the molecule (Samuni et al. 1984; Thurman and Gerba 1989; Yahya et al. 1992).
There are many different mechanisms already proven by evidence as follow:
- Affinity for sulfhydryl groups (Davis and Etris 1997¸Feng et al. 2000)
- Site-specific Fenton mechanism (Thurman and Gerba, 1989)
- Immobilization of the virus to a surface (Thurman and Gerba, 1989)
- Blocks or destroys host-cell receptors (Thurman and Gerba, 1989)
- Inactivation of the nucleic acid within the viral capsid (Thurman and Gerba, 1989)
BBZIX DISINFECTANTS COMPOSITION:
Hydrogen peroxide 50%. Silver 0.038%. Analysis of peroxides according to: UNE-EN 902, European Chemical
Codex, Standard of Quality: US and EU Pharmacopoeia. Synergistic combination of stabilized peroxide. Peroxide manufactured with Food-industry registration.
Hydrogen peroxide 25 %, Peracetic Acid 5 %
BBZIX DISINFECTANTS MICROBICIDE ACTIVITY:
All our disinfectants are broad spectrum and have been tested for years under UNE Official effectiveness norms against different types and strains of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Also due to their action mechanisms, by oxidation, there is no way microorganisms could develop any kind of resistance to it. Also, it is under the general knowledge that envelop virus, where Coronaviruses are classified, are less resistant than other pathogens already tested with an effective Virucide proven efficacy.
The main component of Aquazix Plus® is 50% of stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide and Silver 0,038%. The virucide activity against Coronavirus (mainly SARS as per the bibliography) is proven to be effective at a dosage of 1%, of Aquazix Plus® in a dilution with water.
As we can see in the previous chapter “Active ingredients VIRUCIDE Activity (Hydrogen Peroxide Virucide activity)”, is well recorded in some studies, already stated, at this previous chapter but also at the end of the resume, at the bibliography. In those studies, they all have shown activity at a concentration of 0.5% of Hydrogen Peroxide. In order to reach this 0.5% of Hydrogen Peroxide, we need to use a concentration of 1% of Aquazix Plus® as this active ingredient is concentrated in the product at 50%.
It is also important to consider, that the Virucide activity is greater at this concentration for the Silver content in the product, 0.038%. The Silver increases the virucide activity, as microbicide activity to any other pathogen, but there is not specific evident yet, against coronavirus. As it has been described before, there are many different mechanisms where the Silver can have virucide efficacy to enveloped viruses, and RNA genetic material. But also, it has been described that together with Hydrogen Peroxide, it has a proven synergetic effect with a result of a greater microbicide activity. One of the positive uses for disinfection of surfaces is that silver can provide with a residual effect on those surfaces for a few hours. Nevertheless, without any Cytotoxicity for humans.
As previous composition description. There are two main active ingredients at this product against Coronavirus.
It is already explained, the Virucide activity against Coronaviruses, by Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid.
Regarding the Peracetic Acid, it was previously stated that at a concentration of 0.035% it is proven to have effective virucide activity against Coronaviruses. For that reason, in order to keep this concentration of the active ingredient we need to use a dosage of 0.7%, diluting the pure product directly with water.
The product also has a 25% of Hydrogen Peroxide, therefore it should be used at a 2% to keep a 0.5% of pure active ingredient, if it was the case of being the only active ingredient.
But taking in consideration that 0.7% is already effective due to Peracetic Acid composition, there is no need to use a greater concentration. Furthermore, it would be expected, to have an effective virucide activity at a concentration under 0.7% against Coronavirus, cause this concentration is only given by the Peracetic Acid but not together with Hydrogen Peroxide. Therefore, it should not be recommended a lower concentration for the lack of evidence at lower concentrations, but at the same time we should consider that the range of efficacy security at this dosage is much greater.
In order to clarify and to give extra confidence for the use of BBZIX disinfectants, it has recently been published a list of approved products against the Coronavirus SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) 7(List N: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products for Use Against Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the Cause of COVID-19, 03/03/2020).
In that list there are several products with similar or different concentrations of the same active ingredients, that we have been discussed.
Ex. Product a). *Ready To Use
Hydrogen Peroxide …………………………….1.4%
Other Ingredients: ………………………………98.6%
Ex. Product b).*Ready To Use
Peroxyacetic Acid ……………………………..0.050%
OTHER INGREDIENTS: ……………………….96.721%
Ex. Product c).:
Hydrogen Peroxide ……………………………27.5%
Peroxyacetic Acid ………………………………5.8%
Other Ingredients: ……………………………..66.7%